"The Statutes at Large of South Carolina - Volume IV," Pages 557-559 provide "An Act for Establishing a Fair and Markets in the Town of Belleville, on the Congaree River, in this State," passed on March 16, 1783:
WHEREAS, William Thompson did, by his humble petition to the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of this State, set forth that, at the special instance and request of a number of the inhabitants of Amelia Township and others, he had laid out a town by the name of Belleville, on the Congaree River, on lands his property, and had forever given and granted to the public of this State the streets in the said town, and also several lots of land for a church and glebe, free school, town house, gaol, fair, and market place, agreeable to a plan to the said petition annexed, and had also given and gr-anted forever to such person or persons as are or may be inhabitants of the said town, or shall hold a lot or lots within the same, one hundred acres of land adjoining to the western side of the said town as a common ; and in order to encourage the trade and commerce of that part of the country, the said William Thompson prayed that two market days might by law be established in the said town in each week, and public fairs kept and held there at least twice in every year, for exposing to sale horses, cattle, grain, hemp, flax, tobacco, indigo, madder, and all sorts of produce and merchandise; and that such markets and fairs be invested with such liberties and privileges as to the same commonly belong or appertain.
I. Be it therefore enacted., by the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same, That all and singular the streets laid out in the said town be forever public, and that the several lots of land designated in the plan of the said town hereunto annexed, for a church and glebe, free school, town house, gaol, market place, and fair, be vested in the public of this State, and appropriated to those purposes respectively forever, and that one hundred acres of land adjoining to the western side of the said town be always held and reserved as a common for such person or persons as are or may be inhabitants of the said town, or do or shall hold a lot or lots within the same.
II. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be held and kept in the town of Belleville aforesaid, upon every Tuesday and Saturday in the week, public and open markets, to which markets it shall and may be lawful to and for all the inhabitants and sojourners of this or any of the United States to go, frequent, and resort, and thither to carry all sorts of cattle, grain, and victuals, provisions, and other necessaries, together with all sorts of merchandise whatsoever, and at the public market place already appointed and assigned for that purpose, them to expose to sale or barter, in gross or by retail, between sunrising and sunsetting of the same days, without payment of any toll, or any other let or hindrance or molestation whatsoever.
III. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That there shall be likewise held and kept in the town of Belleville
aforesaid, two fairs in each year, the first annual, to begin
and commence the third Tuesday in May, in every year, and to
end upon the Friday then next following being in all four days
inclusive, and no longer, and the second fair to begin and commence
the last Tuesday in October in every year, and to end on the
Friday following, being in all four days inclusive, and no longer;
to which fairs it shall and may be lawful for all and every person
or persons, inhabitants, strangers, or sojourners of this or
the United States, to the said fairs to go, frequent, and resort,
and thither to carry or cause to be carried, all sorts of cattle,
horses, mares, colts, grain, victuals, provisions, hemp, flax,
tobacco, indigo, madder, and all sorts of merchandise of what
nature soever, and them to expose to sale or barter, in gross
or by retail, at the times, hours, and seasons, that the directors
or rulers of the said fairs for the time being shall proclaim
and appoint; which fairs shall be holden, together with a court
of pipowders, and with all liberties and free customs to such
fairs appertaining, or which ought or may appertain, according
to the usage and custom of fairs; and for the more regular government
of the said several fairs, the majority of the inhabitants of
the said town are authorized and empowered to elect and appoint
such person or persons as they shall think fit to be directors
or rulers of the said fairs; as also a clerk of the market; which
directors or rulers so appointed and commissioned as aforesaid,
are hereby authorized and empowered to have and hold a court
of pipowder, together with all liberty and free customs to such
appertaining; and that they and every of them may have and hold
there, at their and every of their respective courts, from day
to day and hour to
IV. And for preventing of any abuse in the aforesaid fairs, Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the directors or rulers of the said fairs shall yearly appoint and limit out a special and certain open place within the town of Belleville aforesaid, or both or either of the public squares, where the said fairs shall be held and kept, where horses, mares, colts, geldings, and cattle, may be sold; in which said certain and open place there shall be by the directors or rulers aforesaid put in and appointed one sufficient person or more, to take toll, and keep the same place from nine of the clock in the morning until sunset of every day of the aforesaid fairs, upon pain to lose and forfeit upon every default one pound sterling; and that every tollgatherer, his deputy or deputies, shall, during the time of every of the said fairs, take the sum of sixpence sterling, due and lawful toll, for every horse, mare, gelding, or colt, or cattle, and one shilling sterling for every slave, and one penny sterling for every hog, sheep, or calf, sold within the said fair between the hours of nine o'clock in the morning and sunset of the same day, and shall have present at the taking of the same toll, the parties of the bargain, exchange, gift, contract, or putting away, every such horse, mare, gelding, colt, or slave, and also the same horse, mare, gelding, colt, or slave, so sold, exchanged, or put away, and shall then write, or cause to be written, in a book to be kept for that purpose, the names, sirnames, and dwelling places, of all the said parties, and the color, with one special mark at least, of every such horse, mare, gelding, colt, or other cattle, and the name or some noted description of the slave, on pain to forfeit for every default contrary to the intent thereof, the sum of twenty shillings sterling; and the said tollgatherer or keeper of the said book shall, within two days next after such fair, bring and deliver his said book to the directors or rulers of the said fair, who shall then cause a note to be made of the true numbers of all horses, mares, geldings, colts, cattle, or slaves, sold at the said fair, and shall there subscribe his name, upon pain to him who shall make default thereof to lose and forfeit for every default the sum of twenty shillings sterling, and also to answer to the party grieved by reason of the same his negligence in every behalf.
V. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That no person during the time of holding and keeping the said fairs, shall be liable to be taken at the said fairs by virtue of any process, except for treason, felony, or other capital crime, or breach of the peace, but shall be freed and discharged of the same, if taken and arrested at the said fairs, by the justices and judges of such courts out of which the process was issued.
VI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all the fines and forfeitures accruing and arising by virtue of this Act, shall be recovered by warrant under the hand and seal of any one justice of the peace of the said county, and be disposed of, one-half to the poor of the said town, and the other half to him or them that will prosecute for the same.
VII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all the fines and forfeitures accruing and arising by virtue of this Act, shall be disposed of in manner aforesaid, and be recovered by warrant under the hand and seal of any one justice of the peace of the said district.
In the Senate House, the sixteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, and in the seventh year of the independence of the United States of America.
JOHN LLOYD, President of the Senate.