Enfield is the oldest town in Halifax County, North Carolina. The area was settled prior to 1725; however, the town was not founded until 1740. According to one of many stories on how Enfield got its name, the orignal name was Huckleberry Swamp, probably due to the low swampland and the many huckleberry bushes which grew in the area.
No one really knows how Enfield got its name though some stories say that it was named for Enfield, England, after the custom of the day to name colonial towns after villages back in England. Other stories say it was named for an inn which was located in a field on the stageline which passed north and south, thus the name "Inn-field." Some say it was named for a tract of land known as the "Enfield Tract" on which the town was built. However, no one knows how that tract of land got its name. Another version was that two men were walking across a field and when they came to the end, one man said, "We are at the 'end of the field.'" It was at this spot that the town grew up and the name Enfield was born.
The economy of Enfield stagnated until, in 1896, when the opening of the Enfield Tobacco Market brought a glimmer of prosperity to this small town of 700 people. As the tobacco market grew, new businesses were established along with the Bank of Enfield, the oldest bank in Halifax County. Over the years, the Enfield Tobacco Market gave way to markets in Rocky Mount and other areas. Peanuts, however, soon became the leading agricultural market in Enfield. The establishment of many buying and cleaning stations for peanuts soon made Enfield the world's largest raw peanut market.
An event in Enfield's history which probably helped to spark American independence was the "Enfield Riot," one of the earliest political actions against British tyranny. In January of 1759, a group of backwoodsmen seized Lord Granville's land agent, Francis Corbin, in Edenton and brought him to Enfield. There they forced Corbin to give a bond to return illegal fees which had been collected. On May 14, 1759, a group of citizens in Enfield expressed the same sentiments against British tyranny. Several of the "rioters" were arrested and jailed. However, they were soon released when a irate group of citizens, broke into the small jail and freed them. It is thought that the actions of these men probably encouraged Willie Jones and the other radical leaders of North Carolina to push for independence from England through the Halifax Resoves of April 12, 1776.
Before the establishment of Halifax County, Enfield was the County Seat of Edgecombe County. It was also the site of the district court of Edgecombe, Granville, and Northhampton Counties. Enfield remained the seat of Edgecombe court until 1758, when Halifax County was formed and the town of Halifax was established. Enfield continued as the tempory seat of the Halifax County court until arrangements could be made to provide a court building in the new town of Halifax.
Several political leaders have come from Enfield including a governor, John Branch; three Chief Justices of the N.C. Supreme Court, Joseph Branch, Maurice Victor Barnhill, and Robert Hunt Parker; a Comptroller of North Carolina, James Grant; and a African-American Republican Congressman, James Edward O'Hara.
1728-William Byrd and party surveyed the boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia to verify that present day Halifax and Enfield were in North Carolina.
February 17, 1740- Enfield was founded.
1759- Enfield Riots-Forerunner of The Regulators.
1810-John Branch builds the Cellar Mansion.
1817-John Branch elected Governor of North Carolina by Senate.
1825- Lafayette reputedly spoke from upper portico of Joseph Branch home. "The Cellar".
1859-Bellamy's Mill built.
1861-Enfield was incorparated - L. O'B. Branch was offered a cabinet position by President Buchanan.
1873-First known newspaper (name not given)
1882-James Edward O'Hara the first African-American attorney admitted to the North Carolina Bar and the second African American to serve in the United States Congress.
1890-Inborden School opened.
1901-Enfield Graded School opened.
1905-Enfield Progress founded.
Enfield is the smallest town in the world to confer the eighteenth degree Mason. Enfield had at one time five private schools (three for boys and two for girls). Governor John Branch was from Enfield and is now buried in Elmwood Cemetery. Joseph Branch, Maurice Victor Barnhill, Robert Hunt Parker, all were Chief Justices of the N.C. Supreme Court. The famous "Buzzard Town vs. Enfied" baseball game was held in Enfield. Enfield is located in part of the section which in the early 18th century was known as Albermarle County.
Enfield was granted a US Post Office on July 1, 1805, and its first Postmaster was Mr. James Woolten. It has been in continuous operation ever since.