Carolina - The Other Colonies' Influence

How did all of the Other Colonies and their short "histories" influence Carolina?

Maryland was chartered in 1632. In contrast to Virginia, Lord Baltimore wanted to establish a colony in North America that permitted Catholics as well as Puritans, both objects of persecution in England at that time. Lord Baltimore, as an honest adherent of the Catholic faith, could not have excluded his fellow-Catholics from his new dominions. Such a course would have proved him untrue to his own avowed principles, and defeated one of his objects in founding the colony; namely, to furnish a home for oppressed Catholics who were shamefully treated in England at that time.

It was equally impossible for him to have excluded Protestants, being the subject of a Protestant king who ruled over a Protestant nation. Had he done this, he would have raised a storm in England, which would have proved fatal to the colony.

Maryland was singularly free from Indian massacres and also for many years free from maladministration; but, there was one source of constant irritation that annoyed the colony for a generation, and that was the jealousy of the Virginians. The second charter of Virginia had included all the territory that afterward became Maryland, and the people of Virginia disputed the right of Baltimore to plant this colony there; but their objections could not hold ground based on the fact that the Virginia charter had been canceled in 1624 and the colony had reverted to the Crown. But there were two other causes of an unfriendly feeling from the elder colony: first her northern neighbor was under Catholic control and this was irritating to the intolerant Virginians; and second, Maryland enjoyed free trade in foreign markets which Virginia did not.

The period from the Restoration (1660) to the English Revolution (1688) was one of unusual quiet in Maryland. It is true that the people were on the verge of rebellion in 1676 - an echo of the Bacon Rebellion in Virginia - and that the government after the death of its proprietor (Lord Baltimore) was for a time similar to that of William Berkeley's in Virginia, tending toward aristocracy and nepotism, restriction of the suffrage, and the like; but on the whole, the inhabitants were happy and industrious and were rapidly increasing in numbers. During this time, the Quakers, the Dutch, the Germans, the Huguenots found their way to Maryland in considerable numbers.

Prior to the end of the Lords Proprietors' rule in Carolina, some Marylanders found their way down to the Albemarle region and took up residence there. Records simply do not exist to determine if they did the same for the Charles Town area further south. All in all, one can simply state that Maryland had very little influence in Carolina, other than the Virginians' jealousy, which surely trickled southward.

Connecticut was chartered in 1662. New York and New Jersey were chartered in 1664. These three fairly new colonies to the English Crown had been previously owned by the Dutch, and many of the the existing settlers stayed after the English took over. Of course, the English brought their culture, their government, and their laws, and soon these colonies were thriving in the English tradition.

In 1671, some of the Dutch settlers of New York moved to Charles Town, along with family and friends from Holland. There is little evidence recorded about any significant "influence" between these middle colonies and Carolina, other than the normal commerce that continued.

Pennsylvania was chartered in 1682. Delaware was chartered in 1701. Originally Swedish colonies that had been seized by the Dutch in 1655, these two fairly new English colonies were seized by England in 1664, along with New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. William Penn's dream of a Quaker establishment included all of Pennsylvania and Delaware, but the latter seceded in 1701 and became a separate colony.

King Charles II of England had a large loan with William Penn's father, and settled it by granting Penn a large area west and south of New Jersey on March 4, 1681. Penn called the area Sylvania (Latin for woods), which King Charles II changed to Pennsylvania. Perhaps the king was glad to have a place where religious and political outsiders (like the Quakers, or the Whigs, who wanted more influence for the people's representatives) could have their own place, far away from England.

Although Penn's authority over the colony was officially subject only to that of the king, he implemented a democratic system with full freedom of religion, fair trials, elected representatives of the people in power, and a separation of powers—again ideas that would later form the basis of the American constitution. The freedom of religion in Pennsylvania (complete freedom of religion for everybody who believed in God) brought not only English, German, and Dutch Quakers to the colony, but also French Huguenots, as well as Lutherans from the few Catholic German states.

A prominent Welshman, William Penn was also a great "marketeer." He convinced many of his brethren Welshmen to leave their homes and sail to the New World. At the close of the 1600s and in the early 1700s, thousands of Welsh sailed to North America, most arriving in Philadelphia and settling across the Pennsylvania frontier. But, some found out about Carolina and quickly made their way south.

Other than these handful of Welsh Quakers, one can safely assume that Pennsylvania had little, if any, influence on the colony of Carolina.

Georgia was not chartered until 1733, long after "Carolina" was divided into North Carolina and South Carolina.


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